Sunday, May 24, 2020
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century that tells a story of Xuanzang or TripitakaÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to retrieve original Buddhist sutras for China. The influence of Journey to the West has become insurmountable in Asian cultures and has managed to help both Taoism and Buddhism to surge in popularity and stay relevant today. Being one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, Journey to the West has been successfully adapted into various forms of media and is often a required read in both China and TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s education system. What makes Journey to the West stand out and emerge as the most popular literature out of the four is due to the main character, Sun Wukong or the Monkey KingÃ¢â¬â¢s immense culturalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At one point, Sun Wukong even single-handedly defeats the Army of HeavenÃ¢â¬â¢s 10,000 celestial warriors, proving that he is a warrior of the same caliber as HeavenÃ¢â¬â¢s general, Erlang Shen. U nfortunately, Sun WukongÃ¢â¬â¢s misconducts had to be punished, and the Buddha imprisons Sun Wukong under his palm for more than 500 years. He is eventually set free by the Bodhisattva, Guanyin to help Xuan Zang travel to the west safely and retrieve the Buddhist sutras. Sun WukongÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity lies in his eccentric personality, his super powers, and his embodiment of various religious influences. For example, Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and others have almost an unbreakable bond in the teachings of Confucius. The governmental system, their education system, as well as these countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ societal culture all emphasize on the teachings of filial piety. Conversely, Sun WukongÃ¢â¬â¢s early life is the perfect opposition of ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings when he wreaks havoc in the Heavenly Kingdom. Notably, his entire characterÃ¢â¬â¢s early life is the embodiment of anarchism which supports the idea of Taoism as Sun Wukong personifies the opposition force that is responsible for correcting the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s negativity. His wrong-doings in the Heavenly Kingdom has obvious damage and repercussions. However, it is due to his wrong-doings, the Jade Emperor realizes his armyÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness and has taken actions to re pair those flaws. Additionally, Sun WukongÃ¢â¬â¢s signature golden staffShow MoreRelatedStatement of Purpose23848 Words Ã |Ã 96 PagesOhio Wesleyan Writing Center Founded University Promoting1955 as a hallmark of liberal arts education writing Writing Guidelines Statements of Purpose From the OWU Writing Center in the Sagan Academic Resource Center The OWU Writing Center Corns 316 Ã¢â" ª (740-368-3925) Ã¢â" ª http://writing.owu.edu Ã¢â" ª open Monday-Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Ohio Wesleyan University Writing Center Ã © 2011 Writing Guidelines for Statements of Purpose Contents Writing Your Statement of Purpose ..........Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesMcKeown 9 Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2 Twentieth-Century Urbanization: In Search of an Urban Paradigm for an Urban World Ã¢â¬ ¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 Read MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words Ã |Ã 99 Pages a. Business morality b. Charities as businesses 12. Democracy a. Good vs. Bad 13. Social Issues (only stats provided) a. Gender b. Family c. Equality 14. Governance a. World Governance 15. Others a. Cooperation b. Education c. Crime d. Liberty or Security e. Consumerism 1. Media 1a. New vs. Traditional GENERAL Intro: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The first quarter of 2043 will be when the last newspapers land on front process all over America. This is the prediction the author ofRead MoreCase Study148348 Words Ã |Ã 594 Pages978-0-273-73557-1 (printed) ISBN: 978-0-273-73552-6 (web) Ã¯ £ © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Lecturers adopting the main text are permitted to download and photocopy the manual as required. Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies around the world. Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk ---------------------------------This edition published 2011 Ã © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The rights of Gerry Johnson, Richard Whittington andRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesmajor crime? Ericsson Ã¢â¬â innovation from the periphery: the development of mobile telephone systems. Direct Care Ã¢â¬â strategy development in the multistakeholder context of public sector services. BBC Ã¢â¬â structural changes to deliver a better service. Sony (B) Ã¢â¬â more structural changes at the high-tech multinational. Web Reservations International Ã¢â¬â growth of an Irish SME company through its online reservation system and business model. NHS Direct Ã¢â¬â using communication and information technology to provideRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Manag ement215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesrights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. This McGrawÃ¢ËâHill Primis text may include materials submitted to McGrawÃ¢ËâHill for publication by the instructor of this course. The instructor is solely responsible for the editorial content of suchRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesPearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or trans mission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, IncRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 PagesManagement Accounting Edited by ALNOOR BHIMANI 1 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With oYces in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France GreeceRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words Ã |Ã 960 PagesCONTENTS: CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY 1 Midsouth Chamber of Commerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems CASE STUDY I-1 IMT Custom Machine Company, Inc.: Selection of an Information Technology Platform CASE STUDY I-2 VoIP2.biz, Inc.: Deciding on the Next Steps for a VoIP Supplier CASE STUDY I-3 The VoIP Adoption at Butler University CASE STUDY I-4 Supporting Mobile Health Clinics: The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Fund of New York City CASE STUDY I-5 Read MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesCosts 6.4 Activity duration estimates (.3) 6.4.2 Estimating tools (.1.3.4) 6.3.1 Identifying resources 7.1 Activity cost estimates (.126.96.36.199) 188.8.131.52 Delphi method Chapter 6 10.5.3 Cost/schedule system (.1) 6.6 .2.1 Time performance 184.108.40.206 Cost baseline development 220.127.116.11 Earned value system (F.4) 18.104.22.168 E.V., performance status report 22.214.171.124 E.V., forecasts 126.96.36.199 EV., to complete index (EAC) 188.8.131.52 Schedule and cost variance Developing a Project Plan 4.2.2 Planning tools 6.2 Sequence
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Absence of Women in Beowulf, The Wifes Lament, and the Battle of Maldon It could be argued that women are indeed present in the minority in surviving Anglo-Saxon poetry, and that therefore, they are made conspicuous through their absence. The fact they may appear less frequently in Old English Literature does not necessarily mean that women were any less significant in society at this time, although this is the conclusion reached by some. It is assumed that women did, in general, have less important and prominent social roles than men at the time, and the power that they did possess tended to be dictated to them by males. This essay will discuss and examine the social roles and position of the women who did appear in Old EnglishÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is true of Beowulf, as although the story of Hildeburh is told, it is not from her point of view. At the centre is the moving depiction of Hildeburh lamenting her loss as the funeral pyre consumes her brother and her son. Another funeral pyre, that for Beowulf himself, affords the poet an opportunity to touch upon in more universal terms but nevertheless powerfully, the theme of the war-related sufferings of women; an anonymous woman who: sang a sorrowful song about Beowulf, said again and again that she sorely feared for herself invasions of armies, many slaughters, terror of troops, humiliation, and captivity. The theme of the ritual mourner was a predominant one in Anglo-Saxon times. This could be seen as a show of power, the woman taking the lead in a situation that would allow her to do so, an environment in which emotion takes priority over strength and courage. The men present at the funeral do try to govern the funeral setting and take control of the situation through their creation of an immense funeral fire. However, it is much easier for the woman to take over when the situation becomes unfavourable to masculine characteristics. Where women are present in Old English poetry, they are often looked upon as passive, or shadows in an
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The american civil war was a war fought in the United States between northern Union and southern Confederate states from 1861 to 1865, in which the Confederacy sought to establish itself as a separate nation. This war involved both economic factors with ideological factors. The most notable of each being that the southern economy heavily relied on slavery and that people in the north had been increasingly opposing slavery due to its philosophical implications. During the period of this ar european superpowers such as France, russia and Great Britain were involved with america in multiple ways, which influenced the course of the war. American society, though it continued to evolve, was heavily influenced by the european colonies that settled in the area centuries ago. The south still consisted of large plantations owned by the relatives of the slave holders from the caribbean. The plantations were mostly worked by slaves who were born in america due to the earlier abolition of the at lantic slave trade by european powers. These plantations produced cotton which was sold to european nations during the war and this economic system justified the continuation of slavery. The north became industriously urban , the near entirety of production being done by wage workers and becoming region filled with cities. Due to the fact that the north was originally settled by the religiously devout and economically driven traders, slavery was never a notable part of the societal image. TheShow MoreRelatedAmerican War And The American Civil War1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhich then caused the Southern states of America to decide to leave the American Union and create their own Southern Confederacy. This tore our nation apart. The American Civil War had begun and the very people that were once neighbors had each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s blood on their hands. Many American lives had been lost. The American lives lost in the Civil War even exceeded the number of American lives lost during World War I and World War II. We were divided. The North wanted to reunite with the southern statesRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe American Civil War was arguably the most important war in the history of the country. The War of Independence may have allowed American to become itsÃ¢â¬â¢ own country, but the Civil War resulted in something even more important than that, the end of slavery in the southern states. All of the issues that caused the Civil war were based around slavery, such as statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights that involved how slavery would be handled in each state, and trying to preserve the Union since the south seceded from the northRead MoreThe American Civil War1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The American Civil War, also known as the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s War, was a conflict that arose mostly from the issue of slavery, but deep down was due to economic differences between the North and the South. The South seceded from the North and created their own self-government due to their belief in the lack of stateÃ¢â¬â¢s rights versus the federal government and what they saw as a weakness in the Articles of Confederation. While the Confederacy of the United States depended on slave labor for their economy in regardsRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A Civil War is a battle between the same citizens in a country. The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the independence for the Confederacy or the survival of the Union. By the time Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1861, in the mist of 34 states, the constant disagreement caused seven Southern slave states to their independence from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, generally known as the South, grew to include elevenRead MoreThe American Civil War1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGuns fired, smoke lingering in the air, people dying. The American Civil War had a huge impact on the United States. Two compromises took place before the start of the Civil War. These compromises include the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. The Missouri Compromise dealt with the crisis in 1819 over Missouri entering the Union as a slave state. The compromise was Ã¢â¬Å"the first major crisis over slavery, and it shattered a tacit agreement between the two regions that had been in placeRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere were many events that led to the cause of one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most devastating war, the American Civil War. The American Civil War was an unfortunate war that cost more than the lives of six hundred thousand people. Events such as the Missouri Compromise, Kansas Nebraska Act, Dred Scott Decision, and the Election of Abraham Lincoln resulted in the four yearlong battles between the Northern and Southern states due to social and economic differences on the idea of slavery. In the 19th century,Read MoreThe War Of The American Civil War Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe American Civil War lasted from April 12, 1861 to May 9, 1865. It was the bloodiest war in American history, killing approximately 620,000 soldiers in total. The War was fought and won by the North, ensuring that all the United States would stay united and slavery would be illegal in The United States. However, history is one of the most complicated things in the world. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also one of the most important things in the world because history is what made the present possible. Historians have debatedRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesslavery even if it meant war caused peace in this nation. Slavery was the vital cause of the American Civil War. The north and the south both had their differences on how to run the country. People in the North believed in unity and that slavery should not exist because Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equally.Ã¢â¬ On the o ther hand, the South believed in continuing slavery. People tried to talk it out and come to a middle ground after both sides compromising, however that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work and caused war. Ideological differencesRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSlavery may have been established as the catalyst of the American Civil War, but the beginning of the dispute began in the time of the Revolution with a weak decentralized government under the Articles of Confederation. Later gained momentum as territorial expansion set Americans against each other on debating whether the new states should be slave states or free states, it questioned the power of the Federal government regarding state rights, and brought about instability in the unity of the UnitedRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen the American Civil War began in the spring of 1861, those flocking to enlistment stations in states both north and south chiefly defined the ir cause as one of preservation. From Maine to Minnesota, young men joined up to preserve the Union. From Virginia to Texas, their future foes on the battlefield enlisted to preserve a social order, a social order at its core built on the institution of slavery and racial superiority . Secession had not been framed by prominent Southerners like Robert Toombs
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theEffects Facing Transportation Section in Expo 2020. Answer: Introduction Mega events have a great impact on a countrys transportation section as highlighted in the study by (Antonio et al., 2014). The research shows how the 2020 expo will benefit the economy of Dubai in five key areas with transportation taking the second position. In another research by the Antonio et al. (2014) reports that the transportation sector of Dubai will have to grow if it has to handle the projected transport demand of 35%. The research also points out that the skills in infrastructure will be on high demand as a preparation for the event. Some of the legacies that will be left behind will include the state of the art infrastructure. According to Antonio et al. (2014) How do expos impact transportation he explains that rather than the benefits that come with expos there are also the challenges that host countries will face. In his report he tells that host countries need to have financial plan set in place to be able to handle the mega events. As much as there is going to be a boost on transportation the government needs to address the indirect and the direct impacts of the expos such as sudden price hikes in fares. In another research conducted by the Logistics Middle East (2013) and reported by Ahmad Lala it showed that the expo will have both pain and gain on the logistics sector. The financial numbers in the countrys revenue is expected to increase but the big question is how much will the companies take from the pie? With the projected demand the sector will attract new companies that did not exist in the market hence extra competition. The traffic situation will be chaotic and moving from one point to the other will be a challenge to the logistic companies. The cost of doing business will go up in general; the logic behind it is that with the increase in demand it will mean that the supply will be low which in turn will cause inflation as the cost of man power will go up according to Ahmad Lala (2013). The Middle East economic analyst Bryan Plmondon (2013) on the other hand reports that in the non-oil based economy the transport sector will benefit more from the expo at 32% but the infrast ructure part will rug behind from 2016 to 2017 but it will pick up as more funding will be made available from the increase in oil prices expected later in 2016. According to Expo 2020 (2013) the expo has the power to transform the economies of countries and make them develop in new sectors. An instance is the Shanghai expo that attracted 73 million people in 2010 and a further 2.7 million tourists visited the country. After the expo the country had developed 6 new subways and four thousand new taxi brands. Dubai is one of the leading tourist destination around the world hence has properly laid out architectural designs and infrastructures. The expo is expected to attract at least 25 million people from all over the world that means that the transportation has to be carefully planned out earlier. The country is expected to spend at least $ 9.8 billion in the transportation section to improve the current state (Bhavani Kukunuru, 2016). Most of the visitors will arrive through air and expansions to be done on the airports. The internal transportation in Dubai changed drastically after the announcement of the expo. Dubai launched the Dubai Metro to cater for internal transportation to ease up the jams. Dubai is expected to increase its bus networks as well as the fleets to be able to ensure smooth flow of the population that will be expected. With the Dubai International Airport reported to handle 55 million visitors every year with flights to 220 destinations the airport is expected to be prepared because the flights will increase drastically during the expo. Despite the preparedness the transport industry needs to understand the behavior of markets that after the demand is over how do you cope up with the return to normal. The analysis of how markets behave in sudden demands has been analyzed by Ahmad (2013) in his report to the Gulf States for Globe Express Services. He points out that the logistic companies need not to be greedy of the opportunity they just have to have a master plan in place to avo id getting out of business. Methodology There has been a lot of research and literatures done on the effects of mega vents such as the Expo on the transportation section of the host country. There are many articles which have been written to study such events. According to Ahmad (2013) he mentions in his paper that event studies require an in depth analysis of both the positive and negative effects. An insight into the research can be done to ascertain the facts. Though using surveys I was able to gather data on how the transport sector is expected to behave during the 2020 expo. I was able to get the quantitative and qualitative results that could be easily analyzed. Accessing the transport sector is broad and it requires diversified approaches in data collection. I used several research questions such as what is an expo. How will be the expo change the transport industry? What are the opportunities that come with the expo? What are the negative implications of the expo to the transport industry? How do you plan on exploiting the opportunities? What are the challenges that will make it hard for you to achieve your goals or target during the expo? The survey had 10 participants in the transport industry and others were in other industry but used public transport more often. Six of the participants were from the transport industry as either drivers or operating in the logistic companies. Using online survey software I helped the participants go through the questions and give Reponses in the simplest way possible. The participants were required to give their personal information and agree to the survey. This helped them be at ease and give more genuine answers. The participants were the working class ranging from 25-45 years of age. I chose the age bracket because the expo is more of technology driven and it requires people are more intimate with the current technological trends. I had selected 30 participants at the start of the survey but because others were not ready to disclose their information I narrowed the number to 10 participants whom I felt gave satisfying answers. The results I gathered were what the participants per ceived to be the effects of the Expo on their lives. Conclusion and Recommendations The Dubai 2020 Expo will have a great impact on the economy of Dubai both positive and negative. The notable areas that will be affected greatly include the transportation section considering the nature of the event. Mega events such as this attract people from all over the world meaning that every preparation has to be put in place to accommodate the overwhelming number of visitors. From my survey the participants saw the Expo as an opportunity to invest in the key areas of transport which will be the main issue to address. What the participants did not understand is how the transportation will be impacted such as the logistics. From my literature reviews analyst predict that investors are going to turn the table around if they are careful in balancing the opportunities with the resulting negative impacts such as the cost of transportation hiking up which can be avoided by improving the already existing infrastructure rather than increasing their vehicle fleets. Of all the participa nts in the survey only two of them noted the negative effects of the expo on transportation. The government of Dubai needs to address the aftermath that the expos is going to cost the transport sector through seating with the stake holders in the transport sector. Bibliographies Bhavani, G. Kukunuru, S. (2016). Impact of EXPO 2020 on Dubai Financial Market An Event Study on Banks, Investment and Insurance Sectors. International Journal Of Financial Research, 7(2). The authors Bhavani and Kukunuru give reports of how the expo 2020 will change the economy of Dubai greatly given the fact it has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. They give a critical analysis on the sector of Transportation and how there are going to be both positive and negative effects. Even with the projected increase in revenues there has to be a balance that has to be looked at to avoid companies from going out of business after the economy stabilizes. Antonio, J., Moroy Anton, Jan Jose, Gema Saez. (2014). Mega- events impact one economic growth. African Journal of Business Management, 5(16), 6940-6948. In their second edition the three authors analyze how Mega events change the economics of host countries drastically. Citing examples from previous mega events such as the World cup that took place in South Africa, the impact it had on the country was so great. They show that the expo 2020 will sky rocket Dubai in the smart city initiative. Transportation being the key areas that improves drastically in such events. Dubai will be the first country to host the expo in the Middle East meaning much has to be done if it will take the opportunity. Ahmad, L. (2013). Logistics Middle East. The Impact Of Dubai 2020 Expo On Logistics, 2(1). In the article Ahmad addresses the issue of transportation in detail. Most benefits will come to the transportation sector but what the key investors are forgetting is how the industry will be affected after the expo. He gives insights on how the investors can take cautions early enough to avoid being driven by greed of financial returns. This relates to my report on the effects that the expo will have on Dubais transport section.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
animal Inteligence essays The debate about the intelligence of animals has been one of the most frequently talked about subjects in the study of animal behavior. Are animals intelligent, or are the just doing what their instincts tell them to do. But if an animal only reacts on instinct, how have some animals been able to survive even though their environment has changed. How could these animals survive they are not able to learn from and recognize the changes to their environment. Too me the idea that animals are just mindless robots just doing what their instincts tell them to do is preposterous. Animals have a long history of learning, communication, and other signs of intelligent behavior. Scientist trying to understand their behavior has studied animals around the world. Some scientists have been studying conditioning animals to do certain action and remember long string of characters. Pavlov a behavioral physiologist discovered that when he rang a bell just before feeding his dogs began to salivate and expect food. While most people think of this as just a simple reflex it shows that the animal has linked the two actions. The Skinner box showed the learning capability small animals. It used operant conditioning to teach mice to remember patterns to switches. If a creature can remember and figure out how to activate a switch it clearly shows a capacity for higher thought. If animals only act on instinct what does it due when it encounters an event that it has never come across before. The whole idea of adaptation would not exist. When the first gazelles appeared on earth did they right from the start that know that moving in herds would be their safest option. Highly on likely, it probably took a few gazelles being eaten before the learned that. While I will admit that there is a possibility of this knowledge occurring naturally I still doubt it very much. Did ants suddenly organize the complex socia ...
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Role of the Citizens Introduction Being a member of a particular state or country provides an individual with rights as well as responsibilities. This means that just as much as an individual expects the government to perform its duties, the same is expected of them.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of the Citizens specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Famous philosophers have delved into this issue over the past centuries dating back to human existence all in the view of exploring the interaction and relationship between the state and the people. Overtime, most philosophers have influenced the role of politics and intellectual thought with some of their theories and school of thought going a notch higher to become the foundation of modern day democracies and states. This paper has particularly focused on two famous philosophers whose ideas still proliferate and apply in the modern society. These are Karl Marx, the father of socialism and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose famous work Ã¢â¬ËThe Social ContractÃ¢â¬â¢ has been the basis for democracy and the will of the people. Jeanne Rousseau Ã¢â¬ËMen are born free, yet everywhere they are in chainsÃ¢â¬â¢. These are famous words from his widely acclaimed work, The Social Contract. Rousseau was of the opinion that the civil society has failed to bestow upon human beings their natural birthright to freedom but has rather confined them to the false sense of security from the state. According to Rousseau, the citizens are a collective grouping which general views resonate loud in the political sphere of the state and are supposed to uphold the greater aspect of representing the general will of the people. It occurs when human beings as individuals hold dissimilar views and desires respective to their personal positions but the sovereign carry the day, representing the general will of all the people. Rousseau therefore proposed means by which the awareness of the general will would be achieved and this would be through the convening of the sovereign in regular periodic assemblies (Simon 76). This would be done individually or through the elected representatives of the sovereign as reflected in most modern democracies. Therefore, with reference to his definition of the sovereign and the general will, Rousseau was of the opinion that citizens had the obligation to attend the assemblies organized in order to deliberate upon their current state, proposing ways and means of improving their lives as citizens and also to ensure that the general will of the people was respected and achieved by the state. This goes further in indicating one important role of citizens, that of voting.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Simon (308), voting or the electoral process is the benchmark used to determ the democratic state of the country. The outc ome of this process should reflect the general will of the people. Citizens therefore have the customary duty of voting on issues that require a general decision, such as during referendums, as well as electing suitable representatives who would properly represent them in the national arena ensuring their voices are heard. Rousseau concurs with SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s view and indicates that it is crucial that human beings exercise their independence by going to such gatherings, for whenever they break the trend, or the elected representatives fail to do so in their place, their independence is lost. Blais Moore (P 431) are also of the opinion that resonates well with Rousseau and Simons view that of the popular undertaking where the government usually goes against the general wills of the people hence the need for constantly surveying the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. This explains the existence of a frictional relationship between the sovereign and the government. All in all, Rousseau aim to make society as democratic as possible has played a determining role in the evolution and development of democracy in modern states. Furthermore, his discussions of the courts influenced the structure of checks and balances preserved in the instituting papers of the United States. Karl Heinrich Marx Marx, a famous philosopher of the 19th century is known today as the father of socialism (Dick, Blais and Moore 377). Some of his works and ideas were influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseaus but differ greatly particularly where the state and the role of citizens is concerned. His work and ideas are mainly based on the medieval age, where the segregation of society was not due to differences in culture, race, creed or color but rather due to class differences. These differences did not arise due to income or status but rather due to property. He classifies society based on the three main classes discussed below: Bourgeoisie- this represented the owners of the means of production such as machinery and was the first class in the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s class tier. Their main source of income was profit. Landowners- just like the title depicts, these were land owners, a valuable means of production and they took second place. Their income was from rent. Proletariat- these were the last grouping in the social structure. They were comprised of the peasants who sold their labour for a wage. Marx felt strongly against the selling of labour for wages as it tended to distinguish the individual from his/her real being or nature, an aspect he referred to as commodity fetishism. The role of citizens of the state was therefore in accordance with the place in the social structure as indicated above. For instance, it was a common belief that political power was determined by power over production. The role of the bourgeois class therefore was to use this power, vested upon them in virtue of their power over production (capital).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample o n Role of the Citizens specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s time was characterized by the rise of capitalism, practiced by capitalists, whom he described as vampires sucking workersÃ¢â¬â¢ blood. He was a widely acclaimed critique of capitalism and a protagonist of socialism and proposed a communist society that would replace the capitalistic one. He viewed socialism as the means to achieve development without the exploitation of the workers (Berlin 249). Marx proposed a new society where capitalism would end through the organized actions of an international working class and individuals would be in a position to act short of being restricted by the labor market authorities. Comparison between Marx and Rousseau on the role of citizens Similarities According to Garsten (p 430), although the two philosophers differ in means of approach and methods, they agree on the following: Both philosophers deliberate on the issue of inequality. Rousseau advocates for the establishment of a regime that will arbitrate problems associated with disparity in community. Marx is of the opinion that class division in assets should be eliminated through the communal possession of production means. Both focused on the requirements of the society and not personal wants. Differences Rousseau was of the opinion that the existence of the government was due to the need to conduct the executive duty of imposing laws and overseeing the day-to-day functioning of the state (Workler Gorsten 248). Marx, on the other hand, theorizes on the collapse of the government or the state in general due to the revolt of the international working class. According to Marx, political power is determined by the power of production, meaning that the more means of production one had, the greater was the power. Rousseau however indicates that the political power of the state rests with the people as they reflect the general will of the sovereign.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marx views the society as being segregated on the basis of social classes. Rousseau, on the other hand, views society as comprised of a collective unit of people whose general will surpasses the will of the individual. They also differ on the areas in society where change is needed. For Rousseau, it was the political realm that needed change whereas for Marx, it was the radicalization of economy that would eventually do away with inequality. Wise words Ã¢â¬ËBrothers, we all belong to one family; we are all children of the Great Spirit; we walk the same path; slake our thirst at the same spring; and now affairs of the greatest concern lead us to smoke the pipe around the same council fireÃ¢â¬â¢ (Reisert 65). This represents a part of TecumsehÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, an iconic Indian leader who strived for an independent native Indian state. He advocates for unity to achieve a common goal, that of protecting the Indian territory from encroachment by foreigners. Marx and Rousseau would ag ree with TecumsehÃ¢â¬â¢s views since both are advocates of unity and equality. Berlin, Isaiah. Karl Marx: His life and environment. New York: Sage Publishers, 1978. Print. Dick, James, Jeffrey Blais and Peter Moore. Civics and government. New York: McGraw-Hill publishers, 1996. Print. Reisert, Joseph. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: A friend of virtue. New York: Oxford Publishers, 2003. Print. Simon, Thomas. Democracy and social injustice: Law, politics and philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill publishers, 1995. Print. Workler, Robert and Brian Gorsten. Rousseau, the age of enlightment and their legacies. New York: Oxford Publishers, 2012. Print.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Criticizing Coynes Theory Of Evolution - Essay Example In chapter one Coyne, presents his own understanding of evolution, stating the main misunderstanding of scientific approaches to evolution and the issue of theory based on creationist approach (Coyne, 2009). Though he presents evidence to support his idea, revolution he does not clearly explain the stages of evolution. Again, this theory has raised several controversies as many individuals reject the theory. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Discovery Institute resists the theory (Shubin, 2008). CoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of the theory does not cover all the areas such as climatic changes and how it affects the way organisms evolve over time. In my view, climatic changes should affect the way then organisms evolve. Religious movements on their own understanding reject the theory as they believe that God created the world on 6 days and has nothing to do with evolution. He, therefore, failed to convince the religious leaders. If he was sure of his work, Coyne would have been able to integrate evolution and religion for his ideas to be widely accepted (Shubin, 2008). The way he handles the Creationist approach is questionable and puts him in a total mess. To add to the controversy, Coyne considers man as the creator and says that the creator would not make organisms. In chapter two, he analyses the evidence to support his theory. He briefly gives an overview of the fossils as evidence of evolution (Coyne, 2009). He further gives the challenges undergone by paleontologists in a bid to get fossils, strengths, and weaknesses of fossil records and the role it plays to justify evolution. Despite the challenges to gather information and data, paleontologists have done great work to achieve the best. In contrast, these are presentations of evolutionary arguments and evidence but the issue that brings out questions is the failure to relate fossils evidence and creationist approach.